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Why France is One of the Best Countries in the World: A Primer

Anyone who has no idea what France is and what are some of the influences it has brought into the world has been hiding under a rock for the last 200 some years. Two of France’s flagship influences are in food and fashion but its true contributions to the world also extend beyond these to include the economic, military and political spheres. Without France, we would have been left out on the dark on a variety of important concepts and we have much to be grateful that France has been gracious enough to export a lot of its attributes so that other parts of the world may come to enjoy them as well.
France, Dga, Science Technology, Information

The rise of France followed the well-chronicled ascent of many of the world’s more well-known ancient civilizations, form the Greeks in 600 BC to the Romans in 50 BC and well into the 6th century AD. France was also involved in some of the major wars that helped shape the world including the Battle of Tours in The Middle Ages. France was also responsible for some of the major revolutions during the 15th century prior to the rise of the European Renaissance including the French Wars of Religion in the 1570s. On top of this, France was also the origin of some of the world’s most famous and infamous world leaders which in turn inspired modern day heroes and entrepreneurs like Helen Pastorino. Because of the extent of the French Empire and all that it has to bring in ancient times, plenty of essays and researches have been written to further document the rise and fall of France as a nation.

Today, France has taken a more docile approach to political affairs preferring instead to focus a lot of its energy in economic and cultural pursuits. As an economic power, it ranks fifth in the world and second in Europe in terms of size. It is also home to 39 of the 500 biggest corporations in the world as of 2010 but is vibrant enough to host smaller businesses that in turn fuel small-scale businesses the world over. For example, web design leeds has some of its biggest clients in France expanding the relationship between and among European economies at the largest and smallest scales.

But as tempting it is to discuss France’s political and economic influences, it is truly in the world of culture that France holds a special place in the hearts of many. Consider the following areas where France has a major influence in:

The Arts. Some of the world’s best artists, specifically painters, have worked in France or are of French descent. At the onset, Italy primarily influence the identity of French painting but it quickly developed a personality of its own behind famous artist like Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain during the renaissance period, Camille Pissaro, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet and Auguste Renour in the 18th century. The artists who have lived and honed their world-class talents in France include Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, Vincent van Gogh, and Wassily Kandinsky. Today, work advice articles on painting will tell young and aspiring artists to head to France to soak up the influences of the past and find their artistic identity in the art galleries, museums, and streets of France’s major cities.
Architecture. French architecture has help shape many construction projects all over the world including the Jamestown NY homes, the Chautauqua Lake Homes and several others. France’s architectural dominance is obvious in the many cathedrals and buildings that can be found all over France. These include the Notre-Dame de Chartres, Saint Denis Basilica, Sanit Sernin Basilica in Toulouse and even the many castles and fortresses built as a sign of power and as a refuge from war. But perhaps more important than the cathedrals and basilicas, the Eiffel Tower remains to be the crowning symbol of French architectural supremacy and even today, it elicits warm emotions of appreciation and romance from many visitors to Paris.
Literature and Philosophy. It bears no need for emphasis that France has a hand in influencing the literary and philosophical revolutions in the world.
Fashion. Paris is one of the most vibrant fashion capitals of the world hosting countless fashion shoes and is home to many avant-guarde designer shops including the more exotic auction sites. Year after year, the French economy relies heavily on fashion sales and profits and as luxury brands are remodeling estimates to comprehend fluctuations in sales, this can also impact France’s economic forecasts from both the high-level and grassroots level.
Food. Many restaurants all over the world specialize in French cuisine because many people look for it even if they are in a different country. This shows the degree of acceptance and popularity of French food, truly one of the best in the world. Of course, when it comes to a discussion about food, you should not forget to include wine. In fact, the Masters in Health Administration continue to be baffled by the fact that the French have a very low rate of heart and cardiovascular problems when their diets are largely based on fatty products. In the end, perhaps it is the moderate and regular consumption of red wine that gives the added resistance against developing co-morbid diseases.
Sports. The Tour de France is widely considered to be the most demanding endurance sport in the world. Imagine riding on a bike for 21 days through some of the most challenging biking routes in the world; that is the Tour de France. You might just as well do 100 repetitions on chin up bars than try your luck at cycling in the Tour de France. On the one hand, it is a healthy alternative to traveling around and indeed there are many bikers in an around France including the streets in most major French cities. It dispenses with the need for car accident lawyers, and promotes an eco-friendly way to travel.

Unfortunately, French fries is not French (it is Belgian in origin) but given all of France’s amazing contributions to the world, I doubt that French fries would make a different on its reputation as a cultural icon. Come visit France, enjoy its sceneries and savor some of its riches and it is not unlikely that you would be a full-pledged convert to following everything French. It’s stylish and chic; quite simply, it is French!

un peu de nouveauté toujours pour continuer 🙂

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Peace Love Unity


Vive la vie en toute tranquilité dans la paix. Keep Cool

Tips for Entry into the French Real Estate Market

Anyone would relish the opportunity of actually owning a piece of real estate but imagine how much more satisfying it would be to actually have that property in France. Between the food, fashion, relaxing countryside, the wine, and everything else quintessentially French, owning a piece of French real estate would even be better than scoring free or cheap cruises from NYC.

Of course, entering the French real estate market should likewise be an investment in itself. It’s not a simple matter of stromanbieter vergleich where one can just easily dismiss a decision as something you can sleep through. When buying French property, it also has to come with a quantifiable return of investment as well as a favorable payment scheme that would allow you to recover your investment with ease.

In this regard, consider the many options that you have for what kind of property to buy in France. Consider this your professional translation guide to kickstart your foray in the French real estate market:

Villas. There are plenty of villas for sale in France from the perpetually sunny locations in the South of France to just outside the city skirts of Paris and other well-known French cities. Locations like Marseille, Nice, Cannes and Valbonne offer some of the most stunning landscapes anywhere in the world and owning a villa in this location will definitely put you over the top. You know you have made it in life when you lounge by the architecture schools in the South of France without regard for any other concern than the pure relaxation of chilling out under the French sun. Pop audiobooks into your ears and you are set for a wonderful afternoon of rest and relaxation.
Vineyards. Next to villas, vineyards offer the most attractive entry point into the French real estate market. Vineyards have immense potential to not only score yourself a modest property in France but also one that pays back all those investments. France has the perfect weather for growing grapes and a ready vineyard will allow you to learn the ropes of growing one of the most valued plants on earth. When ready for harvesting, you can either choose to make your own wine or sell the grapes to a local winery so you immediately get the full return of your investment.

Still, nothing will trump being able to learn the art of winemaking using grapes grown in the rich soil of France. Many make a sound living out of cultivating grapes and fermenting their own wine, developing their own wine labels, and growing it to become one of the most loved in France and in the world. And even if you prefer the simplicity of couettes when it comes to everyday living, you can choose to just make your wine as a personal treat and hobby. Quite simply, there are so many options for you that you will never run out of things to do once you have scooped up a decent sized French vineyard.

Housing. Even if you do not own a French villa or vineyard, owning a house in France is still just as fulfilling. The location in itself is already a treat and the culture will make you want to trade your job as a wedding photographer York for the blissfulness of French residence. You even have the option of staying closer to a city like Paris or favoring the more relaxed life in locations like the French Riviera, Cote D Azur, and Saint Tropez among others.

The best thing about entering the French Real Estate Market now, specifically when it comes to houses, is that the market is still reeling from the effects of the recession in 2009. In many areas in France, houses have remained affordable. There are also many credit companies that offer attractive mortgage packages that anyone can take advantage of. The French Real Estate Market today is a like a SharePoint Hive full of virtual buzz and it is most definitely an industry that is worth going into.

Condominium Units. At the very least, there are many condominium units available in major French cities like Paris. It is closer to fashion, culinary and architectural schools so you can send your kids to the best art schools and give them a good place to stay. What’s even better, you can use this place as a springboard for all your French escapades during the vacation season. You will end up saving a lot of money by not having to pay for your hotel bills if you have a property you can call your own in France.

There are many real estate properties to choose from in the French Real Estate market and looking through the many options is like using an eCommerce shopping cart. You will likewise realize that with some of the most scenic representations of France in many websites, movies, and t-shirts through screen printing among others, buying a French real estate property can be one of the best value investments that you can make anywhere in the world.

So look through your options and see if you are looking to add another property to your list of assets. If you do, remember the French real estate market. It will be an investment that you will cherish for the rest of your life.

An Overview of Linux Operating System

Linux Operating System is widely used now-a-days. Since the beginning of its journey, it has been one of the most popular operating systems around the world. This OS is based on the Linux kernel. It is like the backlinks service; both can provide their users numerous sorts of services.

The Linux kernel is created by a student named Linus Torvalds in 1991. Before it came into being, the UNIX operating system was in use. Linux is being developed based upon the UNIX. But when it first came into being, it was not allowed to be used for commercial purposes. It was in limited use. But it has been used widely since its licence policy has been changed.

One of the reasons behind the popularity of this operating system is that it is open source and you can use it for free. The operating systems that use the Linux kernel can modify and access the source code very easily. It is like the San Antonio Marketing; both use simple strategy but are very efficient in their work. As the dreamweaver templates go through regular developments, Linux also goes through regular developments. That makes it so unique and well-liked among the users.

As you can download it for free, it is very easy for you to use it. The license that is used for it is named as GNU General Public License. As logbook loans give loans to the applicants without credit, this licence allows the users to download this kernel without credit. But the things that are produced using this kernel are not free. They can be sold commercially.

As folding chairs are available in several brands, Linux is available in several versions. Those are called distributions. These distributions are meant for different contexts and sectors. They are more popular among many other operating systems available in the internet. You can use them for desktop use, mobile technology and so on.

As you can get the payday loan from online, you can also get the Linux OS from online. You can get this in various ways. You can download it from the internet. You can also burn it onto a Compact Disk.

Linux operating system is used in different contexts and sectors. They are used for different kinds of devices like mobile, smartphones, desktop, game consoles, gadgets, tablet PCs, laptops and so on.

Often people say that you can run this system without much training. But it is necessary that you learn well how to operate it. As you need CNA certification to get a good job, you need to learn how to use Linux for a better operation.

As depuy hip recall can turn against your life, the viruses can turn against the efficiency of Linux OS. Though this OS is quite secure, but there are a few viruses that may harm it. But there is hardly any possibility of major attack as it is stronger than many other operating systems. As a lot of people work for the development of used cars Las Vegas to make them safer, a lot of people work on the improvements of this system to make it safer.

As Linux is free and can do a lot of things, it is becoming more and more popular day by day. As you look for an appartement a vendre to ensure a better future, the web developers are working on Linux for its better future. It will continue to grow. Sky is the limit for the developers of the Linux OS to make it more user-friendly and efficient.

Steps to Starting a Business in France

Are you planning to settle to France? Why? What about it? If you solely believe that you can do that, why not start your own business there? This is the best lifestyle in good France, having your own business to run while getting to the lifestyle that the place offers.

If you are unsure about the business you want to open, and then read this clearly so you won’t have to analyze any inversiontables. It shouldn’t be that complicated, but it may be tedious, bring a little extra patience when you get to France.

Here the steps for starting your own business in France:
1. Check your Business name at Institute National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI)- IF you want to have a big impact and have an identity for your business, always go for a unique name. Choose a name of your company, or an existing name of your business that is genuine and directly describes your business. You can’t name a property management York business hair studio, find an appropriate one.
2. Deposit the required Capital for your Business – You have to have the cash to start your business. This process is mandatory. This isn’t your usual Daily deals.
3. Publicize a Notice of incorporation for your Business / Company – Put your best wrinkle cream on, and have your business known. Name of the company, its manager and registered office should be published. Much like dog collars to point out the name and owner.
4. Register your business with the Centre de Formalités des Entreprises (CFE) – This is done for formality. You have to declare everything about your company honestly. There are plenty of options to choose from, like your mobile phone batteries.
5. Get your record books stamped by the commercial court clerk – Accounting books kept for records are all specialized and should be initialed. Whether your business is about plus size clothing, you have to keep all records with the legal books and seals.

These are all done for formality. If you want to have a more exciting business experience in France, You may want to begin the operation of your business with promos. Give away a free cell phone if you want, just d something interesting. If you are travelling from the UK, be sure to have your car battery UK ready as you have plenty of adjustments and applications to be done. Find connections so get some help, more reliable.

You may also want to check out the place you’ll be doing business in. You don’t want to conduct business on a drug rehab inspired facility. The process of registering business in France mean nothing compared to running a successful business.



Merci papa pour tout ca je bouge la je n’ai pas le temps je fais attendre plein de gens enfin pas tant mais…

pffff je me sens trop seul en verité et jespere un jour trouver/retrouver l’amour et une pleine amitié de la part des personnes que j’apprecie.

ou au moins qu’elles avouent leur haine ou leur mepris quoi …

si quelqu’un lit et a envie de causer avec moi pas de pb : et pour msn et email sur irc je suis sur freenode, anope et epiknet et exonara mais celui la est trop petit pour etre connu :p aim jai des adresses darude63 et slim63shady mais c’est pas souvent que je suis conecté

et skype je vais la creer

en attendant vous pouvez toujours visiter vous cherchez dans les utilisateurs EZEki3l et pareil pour les videos sur dailymotion




aquarelle carte postale

Voila l’aquarelle peinte par Catherine d’apres une carte postale recement


Bertrand nous a quitté

Sa famille et ses proches,

Vous font part du décès de

Bertrand GUGGER

Gérant de TOGGG

La Crémation a eu lieu dans l’intimité familiale.

La famille remercie toutes les personnes qui prendront part à sa peine.

Technology Companies in France

France is one of the most powerful economies in Europe, home to many technology companies that deliver continuous innovation and a shot in the arm in terms of economic profit. While France is primarily known for its fashion industry, its glamour companies, and its worldwide leadership in couture and designer clothing, it cannot be denied that it is just as prolific on the technology front as it is on its more famed fashion front. In this post, we will briefly talk about these umbrella companies, their serviced offices and prolific output, with the end goal of highlighting how France continues to be a world power in technology even if it is not primarily known as such.

Right off the bat, consider how France is a player in key worldwide technological industries such as in aerospace, automotive manufacture, construction and civil engineering design, energy and engineering, information technology, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, software design, steel, and wine among others. These are the wow gold flagship industries in technology and they remain to be strong points on France’s famed economy.

For example, in the automotive industry, France is home to companies that manufacture the well-known car brands Reugeot, Renault, and Citroen. Worldwide, the first two brands are well known for their innovation and durability. In fact, Renault races on the F1 circuit and while it has yet to demonstrate parity with super fast cars like Ferrari and McLaren, it certainly has decent showing in most races as a testament to its strength in automotive design and manufacture. It’s hard to not have smile makeovers when you consider that the automotive industry “drives” a significant portion of French economy when it comes to holding market share in many European countries. Even tire manufacturer Michelin is based in France and its worldwide popularity does not require read more signs for you to know more about that brand.

An interesting new segment for which France is beginning to be recognized is in software design. Barely a few years ago, you would have thought France was known better for its perm and Brazilian keratin treatment sessions than for its software proficiency. Today, multinational companies regularly seek for solutions to their IT problems through software companies based in France.

For starters, SAP Business Objects is an IT company that specializes in providing software solutions for data management and planning, reporting and system information generation. This company works with some of the biggest manufacturing companies in the world to streamline manufacturing operations and deliver unrivaled efficiency. Without SAP Business Objects, many of the worldwide manufacturing giants would be a tad less efficient. It certainly wouldn’t be a reach to say they might as well be doing penny auctions.

Other well-known French software companies with sterling reputations that glitter like C9 Christmas lights include Aureus Sciences, Digital Surf, Genostar, GRAITEC, Hexaglobe, IMDS Group, Mondeca, Odisei, OpenCube technologies, Systancia, and Viadeo to name a few.

Perhaps its time to reconsider our view of France as more than just the fashion capital of the world; true, fashion sells just as much as Meladerm reviews or Fat Loss 4 Idiots guides but at the end of the day, the technology companies of France do their fair share of pulling the French economy forward. Without these companies, it is not inconceivable to see France as less powerful than it is currently constituted. For this reason, French technology companies deserve credit more than they are currently getting, and that is exactly why we went out of our way to acknowledge its contribution to the worldwide economy in general and French economic might in particular.

How to Start a Company in France

If you are interested to learn how to start a company in France, the information found here should aid you discover a few useful tricks and tips on how to get things rolling there. For example, you shall get to know how to easily start up a business on the French territory, how to successfully develop a commercial strategy and how to handle your money-related issues as well. You shall not need to prepare top call some 800 numbers just to find out how to do things, but rather take in all of this information and make the most out of it.

Relocating your business or putting your first business ideas into practice in France is an important decision. It is also a decision that is going to require a great deal of thinking. Start by verifying if the trade of profession you are thinking of completing is regulated there or not, and check out its terms of entry. Do some market research and try to clearly assess all of the market prospects that could interest your business, then make sure you build a strong marketing strategy. You could use the click here option on some official web sites and try to find out the exact situation of all of the restaurants, cafes, bars or clubs in France, if you are interested in starting up such a business. If you want to open an Italian food restaurant, for instance, it might be a good idea to actually check and see if there are a lot of Italians living in the area where you have decided to relocate your business to, or if taking your Italian specific food there will feel like going on a wild Africa safari.

Next, you should also make sure that you will be serving the French market as well. In terms of renting you should spend some time and do some proper research, so that you can benefit from the important sand often times substantial fiscal advantages that furnished properties might be offering you. You should also register as unemployed with a French job agency while you are planning your business ahead, so that you can also enjoy a nice exemption from most of your social security contributions for up to two years.

Whether you are considering opening a floor tape business or a flower shop in France, you are also going to need a good accountant to help you out with all of your money issues. You should also make sure you possess at least a few hundred Euros in order to get the tax advice or the financial assistance that you and your new business are going to need. You could also use a Centre de Gestion Agrees to verify your accounts and check out the availability of tax concessions. Get the costs of the insurance for your business and register your business before you start any form of commercial trading.


Les différents points d’insertion d’un plugin

La caractèristique principale des plugins est leur habilité à fournir des fonctionnalités supplémentaires ou à modifier le fonctionnement de spip sans avoir à modifier le noyau (core) de spip.

L’aspect fondamendal de cette habilité est l’incorporation dans le “_SPIP_PATH” de la racine du plugin. Cela veut dire que tout find_in_path() et conséquemment charger_fonction() ou include_spip() sera capable d’aller chercher des éléments dans l’arborescence du plugin. C’est valable aussi bien pour des scripts .php que pour des squelettes .html, des images, etc.

Dès qu’il est activé, le répertoire du plugin devient prioritaire par rapport aux répertoires du noyau : ecrire/, dist/ et racine du site. Donc, par exemple, si le plugin fournit un inc/forum.php, c’est ce script qui sera inclus lors d’un include_spip(“inc/forum.php. Il viendra donc remplacer le script original du noyau. Cette capacité est toutefois à utiliser avec parcimonie et on lui préfèrera dans la mesure du possible les autres possibilité d’insertion par options, fonctions ou pipeline. En effet, un tel remplacement fait que le script correspondant du noyau devient “invisible” et ses mises à jour ne seront plus suivies. C’est pourquoi on appelle communément cette technique un carlsbad therapist “fork” (branchement).

Les répertoires des plugins restent néanmoins moins prioritaires que les répertoires squelettes. Ceci permet à l’utilisateur final de pouvoir fournir sa propre copie qui prendra le pas sur les plugins et le noyau. On peut dire ainsi que les plugins fournissent une localisation intermédiare entre le noyau (distribution standard) et les squelettes (fourniture propre à l’utilisateur sanuk shoes)

A noter que l’activation d’un plugin fournit une constante décrivant son répertoire : _DIR_PLUGIN_XXX, où XXX est le préfixe du plugin, qui est à utiliser dès lors qu’on veut forcer la recherche d’un élément au répertoire du plugin. Attention, cet élément ne sera alors plus surchargeable et on préfèrera les find_in_path() ou include_spip() sui laissent toute liberté à l’utilisateur de fournir ses propres élements.

How to Migrate to France & Start a Business

France lies in the heart of Europe and with its long tradition of high developed culture it attracts people of all age groups and different backgrounds. France is a destination for the sophisticated person in specific who is looking for the never experienced encounter of a different way of life. The strict centralistic structure of the land where all influences, governmental and cultural spread from Paris over the entire country, the effects of them become thinner the further you distance from the Capitol. For that reason you will find a unique array of opportunities that offers the vibrant lifestyle in Paris with its flair that is well-known throughout the world to the cozy country side idyll of the Provence or the lifestyle of the high society at the Cote d’Azure. Often students move to France for a limited time just to experience the typical French lifestyle. The approach to life itself with the attributes of hard work combined with extensive social life and of course food is appealing to the young person seeking different views of life before settling.

If you are looking to live there for the rest of your life you have different options and a good education provides you an advantage that can enable you to start even a business anywhere you like. A good education can be achieved today easily by using online masters degree programs. Choose courses that fit your likes as masters of health administration, master in finance or get an online mba degree, a communication degree, a criminal justice degree online or an mba in healthcare management. The possibilities are endless. If you intend to work in the ever expanding IT world you might select the information technology degree online.

For migrating to France with the intention of catching and participating in the unique vibrant lifestyle that is so different from the one of the New World and try to combine it with an own business, you will discover a vast number of options that definitely will satisfy the search for the uniqueness in life. With a merchant cash advance you might open up a home based business first catering the many stores and shops that embrace the expansions of the online merchandising. Assisting them in broadening their clients and showing them the unique opportunities the new age has to offer, you can scoop off the clients that are not familiar with these new trends. With this type of business you are able to offer all kind of online jobs: take part in SEO works, offer services like PPI calculator or help the many small businesses to compete in the corporate world by showing them how to use the internet effectively.

Spicing your life up and gaining the view of a so different culture is what France is all about. Have the experience of your lifetime and know what it means when people say c’est la vie.


“Mes” fonctions et options

De façon similaire aux config/mes_options.php et squelettes/mes_fonctions.php un plugin peut fournir des scripts .php qui seront inclus respectivement à chaque requète ou à chaque recalcul de page.

Cela se fait par les éléments <options> ou <fonctions> de plugin.xml. Le nom du script est donc libre mais pour la lisibilité du plugin on les dénomme couramment options_xxx.php ou fonctions_xxx.php

Au même titre que les config/mes_options.php et squelettes/mes_fonctions.php “centraux” on peut dans ces scripts :

  • définir des constantes de base de SPIP
  • fixer des variables de personalisation
  • fixer una realizzazione siti web
  • donner des fonctions qui surchargent les fonction_dist() simplement en nommant la fonction à l’identique sans le _dist (mécanisme “historique”) ou des fonctions chargées par charger_fonction(). En effet, cet utilitaire vérifie d’abord que la fonction n’est pas déjà définie. Si donc on en a donné une version dans ces scripts, c’est celle-ci qui sera utilisée.
  • fournir des balises qu’elles soient en supplément ou surchargent une balise existante (…_dist()). Il suffit d’y fournir une fonction balise_MA_BALISE()
  • définir des filtres, c’est essentiellement un fonction du nom du filtre supplémentaire ou surchargeant lefiltre_dist()

On peut évidemment le faire en mettant tout “en vrac” dans ces scripts mais pour la clareté de lecture on procède le plus souvent par include_spip(“balises/xxx.php”) ou include_spip(“filtres/xxx.php”) ceci étant laissé à l’entière discrétion du réalisateur.

RAPPEL : les “options” sont systématiquement chargées à chaque requète, les “fonctions” seulement lors du recalcul d’une page, exactamento san diego flooring. On placera donc dans “options” ce qui est nécessaires partout et notamment dans l’espace privé et dans “fonctions” ce qui est nécessaire seulement aux squelettes.

The Top French Technology Schools

Even though accounting schools in France tend to be largely and intensively sought after due to the many advantages they can bring to students once they graduate, technology schools also make for some of the best options a great number of people are thinking about choosing in terms of career triggers. If you are planning on either joining such a French technology school or you are simply curious to find out more about this topic, you have reached the right page. You are going to read some hopefully useful information on the top technology schools in France.

First, we have the University of Liverpool, which offers online courses and programs in terms of electrical engineering, electronics and computer science and even online master’s degree courses to both French and overseas students. Information Technology and Software Engineering are the main two fields students can choose from for their master’s programs here. The University has been founded in 1881 and it gave birth to no less than 8 Noble prize winners. There are around 3,000 students coming from more than 175 countries to the University of Liverpool in France in order to complete their master’s courses. Visit the official web site of the university and learn more here about the main programs offered there and read here all the details you need on accommodation and fees. Just like searching for free movies online, you could be also looking for alternatives of paying smaller fees as well.

The second choice you could be definitely looking into in terms of technological schools in France refer to the Ecole Polytechnique, which is an educational institution supported by the French state and t is also considered to be the most prestigious engineering school in France. The French elite in terms of science, industry and economy is being yearly trained here. Just like the best master of public health in the US or the dental hygienist schools are being judged and measured considering their performances and students’ satisfaction, the same can be said about the Ecole Polytechnique as well. The official scope of the University is to offer its students high levels of scientific training and also broad views of the outside world as well. Their courses and programs refer to undergraduate and graduate courses, master’s and doctoral programs and all courses are held in French. International students cam also benefit from the existence of the International program of the Ecole Polytechnique, featuring full academic year or shorter periods. Scholarships connected to the Socrates, Unitech and Erasmus frameworks are welcomed here. There are also advanced undergraduate and graduate studies which are part of a special regular pluriscientific 4-year curriculum of the École Polytechnique.

All in all, France has many swell technological schools you could attend. Just visit a smartpet shop, buy your dog or cat enough supplies to last for a whole semester or a while year, ask a friend to petsit your furry friend and buy your airplane ticket as soon as you can.



Les pipelines sont un mécanisme récent et extrèmement puissant qui permet aux plugins d’intervenir dans la fabrication des pages publiques et privées.

De façon très générale, une fonction pipeline récupère un “flux”, le modifie éventuellement puis le renvoie. Par exemple, pour un flux de type texte, elle peut analyser le texte qu’elle reçoit et y rajouter des morceaux comme elle le désire. Celà se fait le plus souvent par des expressions régulières. Attention, vu que le plugin n’est pas tout seul à agir sur ce flux, il est fondamental de renvoyer ce qu’on a reçu, modifié ou non.


Un plugin s’intercale dans un pipeline en déclarant sa fonction dans le tableau global $spip_pipeline. Attention, cette déclaration doit ajouter sa propre fonction précédée d’un pipe |, ceci afin de ne pas écraser les insertions des autres plugins. Pour les plugins, cela est fait automatiquement par l’administration plugins d’après le fichier de définition plugin.xml vu dans le chapitre suivant, donc pas de souci si on utilise ce moyen.

Les pipelines disponibles

Voir le script ecrire/inc_version.php pour une liste actualisée.

Nom Type Description Flux Défaut
affichage_final P Contenu final Texte f_surligne, f_tidy, f_admin
affiche_droite E Colonne droite T1
affiche_gauche E Colonne gauche T1
affiche_milieu E Colonne milieu T1
ajouter_boutons E Boutons navigation OB
ajouter_onglets E Onglets sous bouton T2
body_prive E Corps de page Texte
exec_init E Initialisation ? T1
header_prive E Header Texte f_jQuery
insert_head P Header Texte f_jQuery
insert_js P js fichier ou inline T3
verifie_js_necessaire P Booléen js nécessaire T4
mots_indexation F Mots à indexer T5
nettoyer_raccourcis_typo T Nettoyer raccourcis typos Texte
pre_propre T Avant propre() Texte extraire_multi
post_propre T Après propre() car insurance ex()
pre_typo T Avant typo() Texte extraire_multi
post_typo T Avant typo() Texte quote_amp
pre_edition E Avant éditer objet T6 premiere_revision
post_edition E Après éditer objet T6 nouvelle_revision
pre_syndication P Flux RSS Texte
post_syndication P Flux RSS T7
pre_indexation F Avant indexation Texte
requete_dico F Recherche dictionnaire T8
agenda_rendu_evenement P Rendu agenda T9
taches_generales_cron F Tâches CRON Cron
calculer_rubriques F Calcul des rubriques Null

Types de plugins :

  • P : espace public
  • E : espace privé (ecrire/
  • T : Texte ou Typographie
  • F : Tâche de fond

    Types de flux

Type Composition
Texte Du contenu sous forme de texte
T1 array(’args’=>array(’exec’=>’…’),’data’=>’’))
T2 array(’data’=>$onglets,’args’=>$rubrique)
T3 array(“type” => “fichier/inline”,”data” => array())
T4 array(“page” => $page, “data” => “”)
T5 array(’args’=>array(’min_long’=>…),’data’=>array(mots))
T6 array(’args’ => array( ’table’=>’spip_…’, ’id_objet’=> … ), ’data’=>champs )
T7 array(lien, id_syndic, données)
T8 array(’args’=>array(’val’=>…,’min_long’=>…),’data’=>requète)
T9 array(’args’=>array(’evenement’=>$evenement, ’type’=>’ics/avec_heure/sans_heure’), ’data’=>$sum)
OB Objet Bouton
Cron Tableau de délais (secondes) par tâche

Tout cela est assez compliqué et en pleine mutation, il faut malheureusement souvent étudier le code du core ou des exemples life insurance quotes d’autres plugins pour comprendre comment utiliser les pipelines complexes. Les types “texte” sont en général plus faciles à mettre en oeuvre.

A technological history of France

Science and technology have advanced greatly all over the globe; there is hardly any country that does not depend on some type of technology for its everyday use. When we speak of science and technology, we normally picture very modern countries with huge neon signs and tall skyscrapers. This, however, is a misconception. even countries that don’t have such things, agricultural economies or countries well known for their arts and historical significance, often have some contribution to make to the world of c=science and technology. When we speak of technologically advanced nations, we immediately think of the United States, Japan and China. However, we miss out a very significant contributor in this case; France. It is true that when we think of this country, we think of the Eiffel tower, we also think of fancy perfumes and of course, the ever so famous French fashion industry.  However, we fail to acknowledge the contributions that this country has made to technology and science. Today I will be discussing briefly the technological history of France.

There are a number of different fields of science and technology that France is actually quite prominent in. Since these types of technology do not include very popular products like smartphones and laptops, we are unaware of the country’s performance in this respect. Did you, for instance, know that France is the leader in nuclear technology exports? We all probably know about bulging disc issues a lot more than we know of this fact!

Everyone knows of the bullet trains in Japan and the high speed transport that is now popular worldwide. we are all aware of the numerous automobiles that are present in the world. However, did you know that such methods of transport originated in France?

The French are also known for their contribution to the photography industry, not only in terms of fashion shoots, but also in terms of the development of this technology. If you think you will be taking a payday loan or a pikalaina as the French would call it, to purchase a brand new camera, you owe it to the French!

France promotes the research in the fields of science and technology by the numerous science and technology universities that are present in the country. This research is what has truly enabled France to become the source of the invention of so many useful items without which we would not be able to survive. Refrigerators, for instance, exist thanks to the hard work of many French scientists. Internal combustion engines too exist because of the French.

It can be safe to conclude that we cannot assume that we know all of a country’s strengths and contributions without fully studying not only its obvious traits but also the various traits that the country may have that are simply not highlighted. In this case, I believe not many of us thought that the fashion capital of the world had anything to do with science and technology.  Yet, it’s evident that France has quite a rich history of technology that awaits further research by all those who are interested!



Actions et exec

Exactement comme le fait le noyau, un plugin peut fournir des action ou des exec qui seront directement chargeables par requête url.

En théorie, un exec n’effectue pas de modification par lui même mais les délègue à des action qui ne devraient elles-même pas faire d’affichage. Ce n’est toutefois pas toujours respecté et on retiendra surtout qu’un exec se déclenche depuis l’espace privé ecrire/ alors qu’une action l’est depuis l’espace public, la racine du site.


Ces scripts son fournis dans un sous-répertoire exec/. Le script exec/xxx.php est lancé par l’utilisateur final en demandant l’url http://le.domaine.tld/ecrire/?exec=xxx[&param=blah]

Il doit fournir une fonction principale exec_xxx() ou exec_xxx_dist() (si on veut la rendre surchargeable) qui sera le point d’entrée chargé par ecrire/index.php. Cette fonction ne prend pas d’argument. Elle récupèrera les paramètres éventuels dans la requète par appel de _request() (GET ou POST

Un plugin peut ainsi fournir des exec supplémentaires ou surcharger ceux provenant du noyau.


Exactement de la même façon de un travel insurance, un plugin peut fournir des action par l’intermédiaire d’un script action/xxx.php.Une action sera lancée par l’url http://le.domaine.tld/?action=xxx[&param=blah]

La fonction que ecrire/public.php lancera dans ce script est : action_xxx() où xxx est le nom de l’action. Comme pour exec, cette fonction ne prend pas d’argument mais récupère ses paramètres éventuels par _request()

Une action précise de plus un “redirect”, l’url qui doit être lancée lorsqu’elle s’achève. Cela passe par la globale $GLOBALS['redirect'] ou par le paramètre d’url de même nom.

Il existe de plus un mécanisme optionnel de sécurisation lié aux actions. Celui-ci passe par la fonction securiser_action() et utilise un argument spécifique à l’action (arg) et un hash calculé d’après l’auteur et cet arg grâce à la fonction calculer_action_auteur()

Comme pour les exec un plugin peut ainsi fournir des action supplémentaires ou redéfinir celles existantes.


Attention, le nom d’un exec ou d’une action est unique dans tout le spip, il est donc important de veiller à l’unicité du nom qu’elle utilise si on veut éviter toute “collision”, bien sûr, dans la mesure où l’intention n’est justement pas de surcharger un autre exec ou action…

Un principe couramment adopté est de “préfixer” le nom de l’action ou de l’exec un water softener review par un mot unique, la tendance est d’utiliser le propre préfixe du plugin dont l’unicité est assurée. Cela donnera quelque chose comme action/prefixe_xxx.php ou exec/prefixe_xxx.php

Voir à ce sujet la convention en cours d’élaboration

French Technology Companies to Watch in 2012

As there is no dearth of coach hire services; there is also no dearth of technology companies in France. With the advancement of science and technology in Europe, a lot of technology companies have been coming into being each year in different parts of Europe. France is not an exception in this regard. As people are interested in the top ranked online MBA programs; people are also interested to know about the top ranked technology companies in France.

There are a lot of such companies. As anti aging skin care products can be divided into different types; the technology companies in France can be divided into different types. Two of the most prominent types are:

Software companies
Video Game companies

Some of the most important technology industries from these categories are discussed below. These are some of the companies in France to watch in 2012.

As you are interested to know about the best sell boats services; you are also interested to know about the well-known French Software industries. OVH is one of them. It is a web hosting service that is owned privately. This is well-known for its mutual hosting, VOIP services, dedicated servers and domain names. You will find all these services in a new form in 2012. This software farm has gained popularity due to its constant adaptation to the needs of its consumers. As Friendswood air conditioning can offer you a better service, this web hosting company can offer you a lot of services.

Evite is another well-known farm that you will find in a new look in 2012. This is a website specially meant for social-planning. It produces, sends and manages invitations in the internet. As people are always in search of high quality academic institutions for bachelors in criminal justice; people are also in search of high quality software farms. So, people are leaning towards it for a better service.

As Melaleuca Foundation restores the hope of people in disaster; the video game industries in France also restore the hopes of so many people around the world. Each New Year, a lot of new games are coming into being to entertain the people worldwide. As trazer amor de volta can help you out of different problems; these companies also help the games lovers out of their daily problems by giving them monetary relief.

Adeline Software International is known for its wonderful video games and people are eagerly waiting for its 2012 versions. This is basically a game developer company that is working since 1993. Since then, its motto is the sheer entertainment of its consumers.

BigBen Interactive is another important name in the field of video games. As medical aid is important to save the physical health of the people; BigBen Interactive games are also important to save the mental health of the people. Video game lovers around the world are crazy about its games.

So, these are some of the old French technology companies to watch in their new form in 2012. As it is not possible to mention the names of all the institutions for accredited online MBA; it is also not possible to mention all the names of the technology companies.



La gestion des textes en pludieurs langues par un plugin est tout à fait similaire à celle existant dans le noyau.

Il suffit de fournir un sous-répertoire lang/ dans lequel on place des fichiers de traduction comme chose_fr.php, chose_en.php, etc.

Ces fichiers rajoutent au tableau global de nom $GLOBALS['idx_lang'] les chaînes traduites indicées par le mnémonique de traduction. Par exemple, le plugin crayons fournit une traduction allemande dans le fichier lang/crayons_de.php ainsi :

Important : on voit ici que $GLOBALS['idx_lang'] est bien le nom de la globale et non pas la globale elle-même.

On utilise ensuite ces chaines traduites en les préfixant par le nom du fichier langue.

Dans les squelettes : <:chose:mnemonique:>, par exemple ici <:crayons:annuler:>

Dans le PHP en utilisant la fonction _T() comme _T("chose:mnemonique")

Les mnémoniques avec des, anthony morrison scam @param@ sont des chaines paramétrées. Elles permettent d’incorporer des valeurs variables dans la traduction. Par exemple, la 2ème ligne de l’exemple tiré de crayons s’utilise en fournissant 2 variables comme arguments supplémentaires à _T() : _T("crayons:editer_@type@_@id@, $type, $id). Si type vaut “article” et id 17, on obtiendra : “article 17 voll ändern”

Il est impératif d’utiliser dans les traductions des entités html ou numérique pour les caractères accentués, comme ici &auml ; pour ä.
A titre de curiosité, la première chaîne en arabe devient :
’annuler’ => ’&#1573 ;&#1604 ;&#1594 ;&#1575 ;&#1569 ;’
qui donne 'annuler' => 'إلغاء'

Si la traduction n’existe pas, le mnémonique outdoor garden fountain sera utilisé, les tirets bas (underscore) étant remplacés par des espaces.

A noter que le nom du fichier de traduction qui fournit le préfixe précédant les deux-points est en fait indépendant du nom du plugin. On peut même fournir plusieurs fichiers de préfixes différents pour un même plugin.


La pièce centrale : plugin.xml

Un plugin est déterminé par sa pièce centrale : le fichier plugin.xml situé à sa racine.

Ce document suit la syntaxe xml. Son élément racine est <plugin>. Attention, il doit utiliser uniquement des caractères ASCII (non accentués) pour assurer sa portabilité. On doit donc utiliser des entités html ou numériques pour tout autre caractère.

Balises de description :

Elément Description Obligatoire Typo
<nom> Le nom du plugin tel qu’il apparaitra dans le panneau de configuration. X
<version> La version du plugin X
<etat> Etat du plugin, parmi dev (developpement), experimental, test, stable. X
<auteur> Le ou les auteurs du plugin. Vous pouvez utiliser les raccourcis typo et chaînes de langue dans ce champ. X
<description> Décrit ce que fait le plugin. X
<lien> Liens html vers la homepage ou la doc du plugin qui donne plus d’information sur son fonctionnement. X

Balises d’implémentation :

Elément Description Obligatoire Typo
<prefix> permet de définir le nom des préfixes de fonction définies par le plugin. Pour des raisons de cohabitation saine avec ses petits copains plugins, toutes les fonctions propres à votre plugin devront commencer par ce préfixe. Regardez les exemples du plugin « Rien » pour voir comment faire. La seule contrainte est de préfixer les declarations de fonction et d’ecrire vos appels de fonction sur le mode $truc = Rien_ma_fonction($val);. X
<options> permet de définir un fichier qui sera chargé à chaque hit, comme l’était le fichier mes_options.php.
<fonctions> permet de définir un fichier qui sera chargé à chaque recalcul de page, comme l’était le fichier mes_fonctions.php.
<pipeline> permet de définir un point d’insertion du plugin dans un pipeline de traitement.

Cet élément <pipeline> inclut alors les sous-éléments suivants :

Elément Description Obligatoire Typo
<nom> donne le nom du pipeline ou insérer l’appel au plugin. X
<action> donne le nom de la fonction à appeler (sans le préfixe qui sera ajouté automatiquement par SPIP). Si non précisé, ce sera le nom du pipeline soit une fonction : prefix_nom_pipeline()
<inclure> Nom du fichier à inclure pour que la fonction soit disponible. Si non précisé, la fonction doit être disponible dans le script options

Les tags <nom>, <version> et <prefix> sont obligatoires. Les autres sont facultatifs. Il n’est pas autorisé d’utiliser un nom de fonction identique au nom de préfixe (La fonction Rien_rien() sera refusée parce que c’est comme ca – pour les curieux je peux raconter l’histoire… -), ni d’utiliser les noms de fonctions install, uninstall et configure qui sont réservés pour des évolutions que vous devinez déjà.

Pour des raisons de performance, il est conseillé de découper proprement les fonctions de son plugin dans des fichiers séparés, afin que seules les fonctions requises soient chargées lors des include.

Et pour plus de réponses à vos questions n’hesitez pas à regarder tous les exemples disponibles sur spip-zone.

Voir description initiale sur contrib dont cet article reprend des extraits.

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